Molokan Orchard

Samara, 1870-1970

by Prof. George Vladimir. Bichurov
and Associates,
Samara State Technical University
24 июня 2006 года в разделе "Молоканский сад" размещена план-схема.
Schematic maps were placed in the "Molokan Orchard" section on June, 24, 2006.

     
Click on maps to ENLARGE
The Molokan Fruit Orchard is recorded as early as 1852 on a Samara City planning maps at the north edge of the city. The Molokan Orchard region continued for more than 100 years, up to the 1960s. The city grew and this fruit farm became a suburb — log homes, then apartments and parks. A few original trees still remain in the parks but the old name was changed during Soviet times. See maps of Samara showing the Molokan Orchard at the north-end of town for: 1852, 1887a, 1887b, 1898, 1909, 1911, 1914a, 1914b, 1915a, 1915b, 1916a, 1916b

See many more photos in Album 1: Molokan Orchard in Samara, 1870-19701870-2000After 2000. Some photos are displayed here with links to their source.
МОЛОКАНЕ  — одна из сект духовных христиан. Возникла в России во второй половине 18 века. Отвергают священников и церкви, совершают моления в обычных домах. Общинами руководят выборные старцы-пресвитеры. Постепенно разделились на ряд групп.
MOLOKANS — One of the sects of Spiritual Christians. They arose in Russia in the after 1750. They reject priests and churches, and performed prayer in ordinary houses. They appointed elder lay ministers, presbyters. Gradually they divided into a number of groups.
Молоканский сад ... Этот фруктовый сад был посажен в конце 20-х годов XIX века купцом Грачевым Акинфием Прохоровичем, молоканом по вероисповеданию. По плану 1853 года землемера Федорова рядом с этим садом предполагалось создание жилой солдатской слободы. В 1854 году А.П.Грачев подал протест в сенат, так как создание солдатской слободы было вредным для сада. Сад занимал площадь до 26 десятин, имел более 5000 тысяч деревьев, в основном груши, яблони, вишни. В саду располагались 4 пруда. В 1857 году А.П.Грачева не стало. Сад перешел к его наследникам. В 1908 году на территории Молоканского сада образовался новый поселок, так как наследники Грачева разбили его на мелкие участки и распродавали эти участки под жилые постройки.
The Molokan Orchard ... This fruit orchard was planted in the 1880s by the merchant Akinfi Prokhorovich Grachiov, of the Molokan faith. According to the 1853 plan of the land surveyor Fedorov, a large soldier's settlement* was proposed to be built near this orchard [on the eastside]. In 1854, A. P. Grachev submitted a protest to the senate that building a large soldier's settlement was harmful to the orchard. The orchard occupied an area up to 26 desiatin [70 acres], and had more than 5000 thousand [probably 5000] trees, mainly pears, apples, and cherries. In the orchard there were 4 ponds. In 1857 A.P.Grachev passed away. The orchard was passed on to his heirs. In 1908 a new subdivision was built on the region of the Molokan Orchard because Grachev's heirs subdivided the orchard into small parcels sold for residential buildings.
[*See the growth of the soldier's barracks from 1887 to 1898.]
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Types of the "coast-dwelling" [pomortsev] dissenters in the Transvolga region, Karel'ckoi village. Postcard No 72, published by M. Dmitriev, Novo-Novgorod, 1900-1904.
These women and children are most likely a sub-group of Old Believers as stated, but those in white look quite different and may be Molokans who were prevalent in Samara.
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Samara. A tree which possibly remained from the old Molokan Orchard [Fadeyev's Park, Lenin Avenue]. Photo 2005.
Заселение Молоканского сада продолжалось вплоть до 1915-1916 годов. Почти каждый двор имел фруктовые деревья, оставшиеся от старого сада. Преимущественно это были груши. Даже в конце 1950 — начале 1960 годов эти деревья достигали иногда десятиметровой  высоты. Плоды груши стали уже небольшими, и жители Молоканского сада называли их дульками. Помню, что даже в конце 30-х годов в полисаднике дома по улице Дурова 5, росла старая растрескавшаяся груша, которую спилили лишь перед войной. От старого сада остались и другие деревья.  Так, в начале улицы Дурова, возле дома священника, рос огромный "столетний" дуб. Residents continued to move into the Molokan Orchard up to 1915-1916. Almost each backyard had fruit trees which remained from the old orchard. Predominantly these were pear trees. Even at the end of the 1950s to the beginning of the 1960s, these trees sometimes reached ten-meters in height [33 feet]. The pear fruit became really small, and the residents of the Molokan Orchard called them dul'kami [small pears]. I remember that even at the end of the 1930s in the frontyard of   the house at #5 Durova Street, there was and old cracked pear tree which was cut down just before the war [WWII]. There were other trees that remained from the old orchard. For example, at the beginning of Durova Street, near the Priest's house, grew an enormous "centenary" oak [100 years old].
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Molokan Orchard. Apartment house at 5 Durova Street.
[I  stood in the yard of the house at 1 Lenin Avenue]. My house. Photo 1951.
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Samara. Bol'nichnaia Street. School No. 30
. Photo 2005.
За рядами домов по улице Дурова почти в каждом подворье имелись огороды. За огородами, по четной стороне домов, проходила улица Рыковская (Осипенко), а по нечетной стороне — остатки старого сада и пустыри. Сама улица была мощена булыжником. Все дома были преимущественно деревянной постройки. Несколько домов было двухэтажных. Behind the rows of houses along Durova Street there were vegetable-gardens in nearly every backyard. Behind the vegetable-gardens, along the even-number houses, there was Rykovskaia Street (now: Osipenko), and along the odd-numbered houses were remainders of the old orchard and vacant land. The street itself was paved with cobblestone. All houses were predominantly wooden buildings. Several houses were two-story.
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Samara. Solov'inaia Street from Mel'hichnoi Street perpendicular to Polevoi Street. [Michurin's Street from Klinichka St. to Polevoi St, ]. Photo ~1913.
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Kuibyshev. Constuction of a new city block at the intersection of Novo-sadovo and Osipenko streets. [Aerial photo of new apartments, old buildings in front and Volga River in back.]
Photo ~ 1970.
Улица Красинская также была мощена булыжником. От улицы Дурова по ней можно было пройти до школы № 30. Школа стоит до сих пор. Перед школой № 30 располагалось двухэтажное деревянное строение, в котором размещалась школа рабочей молодежи. На улице Красинской имелась водоколонка, которой пользовались жители обеих улиц. Магазинов на этих улицах не было. От школы № 30, если идти к улице Мичурина, можно было выйти к известному в городе книжному магазину. Магазин располагался в двухэтажном деревянном доме, покрашенном зеленой краской. На первом этаже располагался непосредственно магазин, а на втором — квартиры для жилья.
Krasinskaya Street was also paved in cobblestone. One could walk to School № 30 from Durova Street. The School is still there. In front of School № 30 was a two-story wooden building which was a school for young working people [trade or vocational school]. A water-tower was on Krasinkoi Street which residents of both streets used. There were no stores on these streets. From School № 30, if you walked to Michurin's street, you would arrive at a book store known throughout the city. The store was located in a two-story wooden building, painted green. The bookstore occupied first floor, and  apartments were on the second floor.
Если выходить к улице Мичурина по улице Дуровой, то можно было выйти к бензозаправочной станции. А далее, через улицу Мичурина к улице Ленской можно было пройти и к базару Цыганка. Улица Ленская соединяла базар Цыганка и трамвайное депо, расположенное на улице Полевой. If you exit Michurin's Street to Durova Street, then you would arrive at a gas station. But if you walk further, across Michurin's Street to Lenskoi Street, you would arrive at the Gypsy market [outdoor farmers' market]. Lenskoi Street connected the Gypsy market and tram [electric street-car] depot, located on Polevoi Street.
Летним вечером на улице Дурова часто вывешивали на фонарном столбе киноэкран. И киномеханик демонстрировал к удовольствию жителей Молоканского сада кино. During summer evenings on Durova Street they would often  hang a movie screen from a lamp post. And a movie technician would show a movie for the enjoyment of the residents of the Molokan Orchard.
Мелёхина (Бичурова) Н. Г. by Melekhina (Bichurova) N. G.
В настоящее время Молоканского в Самаре не  существует. Большую часть его территории занимает II Мичуринский микрорайон. Now the Molokan Orchard no longer exists in Samara. Most of it's land is now occupied by the II Michurinski neighborhood [micro-raion].
See 1925 Samara Molokans: "1 October: This day in history"
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