Advertizement:


Professor Orhan Turkdoghan

An Ethnic Group in Kars

Molokan Social Structure

or:  Spiritual Christan Molokan Way of Life

Turkey  2005


[This is a republishing of Turkdoghan's Ph.D. thesis first published in 1970.]
Kars'ta Bir Etnik Grup
Malakanlar'ın Toplumsal Yapısı


Yazar : Orhan Türkdoğan

Yayınevi : IQ Kültür-Sanat Yayıncılık

Etiket Fiyatı : 20,00 YTL
Dharma Fiyatı : 15,00 YTL
Kazancınız : %25
Social Structure of an Ethnic Group
in Kars: Spiritual Christians Molokans


Author: Orhan Turkdoghan
[He wrote 35 sociology and culture books in Turkey]
Publisher: IQ Kulture-Sanat Yayincilik

List price: 20 Turkish liras [$26]
Discount price: 15 Turkish liras [$19.50]
Savings: 25%
Malakanlar, Beyaz Rus Kökenli bir etnik halktır. Kars ilimizin, Ruslar tarafından 1877-78 savaşları sonucu işgali üzerine, dönemin Rus yöneticileri tarafından Kars'ın Arpaçay ilçesine bağlı Atçılar, Çalkavur ve Yalınçayır (Zöhrab) yörelerine yerleştirilmiş bu dinsel etnik grup; seksen yıllık bir ortak yaşamdan sonra, 1962 yılında, kendi özgür ve bağımsız kararlarıyla Rusya, Amerika ve Avusturalya'ya göç etmişlerdir. Bu göç sürecinde, çok yakın akraba ile evlenme durumunda kalmaları (incest taboo), yerli halkla evlenme yapmamaları, ayrılık kararlarında önemli etken olmuştur. Spiritual Christians Molokans came from the White-Russians. [They were not from the province of Beliarus (White-Russia), nor participants in the White movement — aristocrats who fled during the revolution, or the White Army that defended the Tsar.] During the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War, when Russian took over Kars, the Russian mayor of Kars relocated the Spiritual Christians Molokan ethnic group [about 20 villages] into the areas of Atchilar, Chalkavur, and Yalinchayir (Zagrab) [Ol'shanka] villages. By their own independent decision in 1962, after 80 years of living in Turkey, they moved to Russia [Soviet Union], America, and Australia. [There was an earlier migration in 1922 to the Sal'skii steppe, east Rostov province, Russia, with Kars Doukhobors after Kars province was given back to Turkey. See maps: 501 Spiritual Christians Perscuted in 1940s. No Spiritual Christians moved directly from Kars to America or Australia until a few moved to the US in the 1970s.] One of the reasons that influenced their reason for going to Russia is that very close family marriages were occurring (incest is taboo) because they would not intermarry with the local Turks. [This is a minor reason. About 1500 Spiritual Christians remained in Turkey in 1960. The main reasons for moving at that time were due to Russians being severely harassed as infidels (non- believers of Islam); and young Russian girls being kidnapped by Turks who beat, raped and kept them as additional wives.]
Kars ilimizin üç köyünde yaşayan bu insanlar, yöre halkına değirmencilik, peynircilik ve tarımsal alanda önemli yenilikler getirerek, adlarını unutturmamışlardır. Osmanlı Arşiv belgelerinde bile, Ermeni zulmüne maruz kalmalarına rağmen, yerli halkla uyumlu ve barışçıl bir yaşam tarzını sürdürdüklerine tanık olmaktayız. The Spiritual Christians Molokans who lived in the three villages in the Kars region taught the local people about milling [see mill photo], one of their first professions, how to make cheese, and the agriculture industry. These are most of the new things they brought to this area. This caused the local people not to forget them. The Ottoman Archives report that even though the Spiritual Christians Molokans suffered under the Armenian oppression, they had a very peaceful lifestyle during this time. [Not entirely true. Russians were often victims of theft and discrimination.]
II. Petro'nun modernleşme girişiminden ötürü, kimlik kaybına maruz kalacakları endişesiyle, IV. Mehmet döneminde ülkemize sığınmayı tercih eden Rus Kozakları veya Kazakları da yaklaşık 250 yıllık bir süreden sonra, Malakanlarla birlikte 1962 yılında Türkiye'den ayrılma durumunda kalmışlardır. During  the reign of Peter II [Russian Tsar 1727-1730] the Russian Cossacks [Old Believer-Nekrasovtsy, Nekrasovites, or Staroobriadtsy: Old-Ritualists] were afraid to be modernized and lose their identity. The Russian Cossacks [Old Believers] decided to live under the Turkish rule of Mehmet IV [Ottoman Empire sultan (ruler) 1648–87 A.D.] After living in Turkey for 250 years they had to leave to Russia with the Spiritual Christians Molokans in 1962. [Both groups were resettled in northern Stavropol' province in and near Levokumskoe. The Turks mistakenly label Old Believers (Staroveri) as "Cossack" which derives from the Turkish word kazak, 'free person'. "Originally the Cossacks were free mercenaries who resided in a no-man's land. They eventually became a part of the Russian irregular military with the main objective of defending Russia's borderlands. As such, they were identified by their area of residence." (Encyclopedia of World Cultures, 1992, 103)]
Türk insanının etnik gruplara olan bakış açısı, yönelimleri, kültürel mannerizmi ve dünya görüşleri hususunda tanıtıcı çizgide olmak üzere, yeni yaklaşımlar ortaya koyduk. Bunları, sırası gelmişken açıklamaya çalışalım. "Kürt Sorunu" olgusunun söz konusu olduğu bir politik arenada, Malakanlar ve Don Kazaklarına yönelik etnik deneyimimizin boyutlarının ortaya konulması, hem kültür zenginliğimiz, hem de etnik gruplara yaklaşımımız açısından önemli olsa gerek.
This book explains how great the Turkish government dealt with the ethnic minority groups. I hope we laid out new venues for you to understand. We like to explain this to you as they come. During these times when we have the "Kurdish problem" in our country we would like to give you more information about the Spiritual Christians Molokans and Old Believers, their ethnic life. It would be helpful to open up more information about them, to show you how we treat the ethnic groups here in Turkey. [Spiritual Christians who lived there tell about stealing animals, kidnapping girls, robbing graves — hardship and tragedy.]
ISBN : 975-255-039-8
Basım Tarihi : Eylül 2005
[Summary translation from Turkish 
by Dmitri Bruhin, born in Kars.]
Дальше:


More:
  • Sen D.V."On the re-emigration of Nekrasov Cossacks from Turkey to Russia in the 1920s". Severo- Kavkazskii region. Seriia Obshechestvennye nauki. N 4 (104) 1998. Rostov-na-Donu. Russia.
  • Molokan Heritage Collection, Volume II: Molokans in Turkey. By Dr. Orhan Türkdogan (edited and enhanced). 250 page book in-progress. Details about the 1,500 Spiritual Christians who stayed behind in Kars until they returned to Russia in 1962. We had this 1970 Ph.D. thesis translated from Turkish and added more data, photographs, diagrams, maps, and tables. Did you know that the Pryguny ate red eggs during Paskha? Did you know about the breeds: "Molokan horse" and "Molokan dairy cow"?
NOTE: In the early 1990s Dr. Margarita Mazo (ethnomusicologist, Ohio State University) with Serefima Nikitina (linguist, Russian Academy of Science) began researching Spiritual Christian and Old Believer-Nekrasov singing in Stavropol Russia and the US — Dukh-i-zhizniki in California/Oregon, and Nekrovsty in Oregon. Descendants of both groups originated in Turkey and were separated for generations. She arranged for 4 choirs, 2 from each group in the US and Russia, to participate in the 1995 Smithsonian Festival of American Folklife, Washington DC (10 days ending July 4).

Though Dukh-i-zhizniki in Russia organized their best singers into a choir, the American Dukh-i-zhizniki did not see the invitation which was mailed to presbyter John Kochergen in Fresno, California. Kochergen hid the invitation, not showing it to anyone because he knew it would be rejected and agitate zealots. Unfortunately he did not inform Dr. Mazo of his decision until she asked for a list of names to arrange plane tickets and hotel rooms in Washington D.C.

In June, just a few weeks before the trip, Molokane in Stavropol were given the surprise invitation. With such short notice, only those from Azerbaijan could be quickly selected. The Stavropol' Dukh-i-zhizniki who democratically selected their best singers, practiced together, and had all their passports and visas arranged, are still upset they were denied a free dream trip to mix with Dukh-i-zhizniki in the U.S.

More work by Drs. Mazo and Nikitina:
  • Margarita Mazo. Old Believers: Songs of the Nekrasov Cossacks. Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.  Download samples of 26 songs
  • Margarita Mazo. Change as Confirmation of Continuity As Experienced by Russian Molokans
  • Serafima Evgen'evna Nikitina. Russian Confessional Groups Today: Surroundings and Contacts with Other Confessions. Kalbotyra Linguistics: Research Papers. 53(1) 2004
  • Серафима Никитина. (Serafima Nikitina) «Слово Божье — звуковое» (Об устном и письменном слове в молоканской культуре)  "The word of God is sonic" (about the oral and written word in Molokan culture) Ruthenia. Page 578
  • Серафима Никитина (ИЯ РАН). (Serafima Nikitina, Institute of Linguistics, Russian Academy of Science) "Грех" в фольклоре молокан и баптистов. ("Sin" in Molokan and Baptist Folklore ). 2-3 ноября 1999. Москва. Российская Академия Наук. Институт славяноведения. Научная конференция "Идея греха в славянской и еврейской народной традиции". (2-3 November 1999. Moscow. Russian academy of sciences. Institute of Slav philology. Scientific conference "idea of sin in the Slav and Jewish people tradition".)
  • Никитина Серафима (Москва). "Сны и видения у молокан". Семинар: 'Православие и западное христианство в истории славянских культур'. Институт славяноведения РАН, Центр украинских и белорусских исследований. 20 декабря 2005 года.
    Nikitina Serafima (Moscow). "Sleep and vision in the Molokans." Seminar: "Orthodoxy and Western Christianity in the history of Slavic culture". Institute of Slav philology RAN, Center for Ukrainian and Belorussian Studies. 20 December 2005
  • Серафима Никитина. Guest on radio show: Россия как цивилизация: "Духовные христиане" (Russian as Civilization: "Spiritual Christians") [broadcast 25-Nov-2001], Радио Свобода [Free Radio], Moscow. (Note Molokans were mentioned and/or discussed on 12 shows.)

Spiritual Christans in Turkey
Spiritual Christians Around the World