The Russian Spiritual Christians Molokans:
Glendale's Spirited Immigrants
By student Esta Portnoy — May 6, 1981 — Corrections in RED
Class paper for History of Phoenix, HIS 598, 6:40pm-Wed,
Taught by Dr. Brad Luckinham (1934-2008), Arizona State University
Table of Contents
- Photos 1 — (2 photos) Alex S. Tolmachoff & wife, and son Ivan & wife
- Photos 2 — (4 photos) Vasili A. Tolmachoff & wife, and sister Masha with husband Pavel M. Popoff, Arizona Church, and Cemetery. Summary of immigration.
- Photos 3 — (4 photos) Trafim I & Onya M. Evanoff, Petro A. & Masha I. Tolmachoff, Banya, and unidentified group.
- Photos 4 — (5 photos) Ivan Alekseich's Cheese Factory, group photos
- Photos 5 — (4 photos) Glendale's Big Sugar Factory, Glendale's Rich Farmlands Yield Bountiful Harvests
- Photos 6 — (3 photos) Paul Popoff, John Treguboff, Arizona Church.
The Russian Spiritual Christian Molokan immigrants came to America to avoid religious persecution in the early 1900's. The arrival of the hearty, dedicated farmers helped shape the history of Glendale and enriched its reputation as an agricultural community.
The descendants of the Spiritual Christians Molokans have preserved part of the traditions of their colorful ancestors. Their meeting house church still exists. Remnants of the culture persist even though the modern day descendants Molokans have married outside the church and left the farm.
Many of the descendants of the original immigrants have forgotten the language, some of the reasons for the customs, but they remember well their contributions to the growth of Glendale.
It was a time of unrest in Russia. Czar Nicholas II (1868-1918) was thought to be a liberal, if not a radical by his peers. His decree in favor of religious freedom seemed a doubtful reform in the eyes of some critics, who urged that although freedom was granted to all present sects, the death penalty still held for any churchman who, left the Greek Orthodox faith for any other.(1)
A group of Russian dissidents had forsaken the Greek Orthodox Church to form a sect called the Molokan Spiritual Christian Holy Jumpers — Pryguny. For the most part they were country people from Central Russia, the Ukraine and what was then Russian Armenia.(2)
Their religious beliefs, based upon brotherly love toward all men, prohibited them from serving in the, Tsar's army. The death by hanging of several of their members urged their retreat from Russia.(3)
Two of the first Spiritual Christian Molokan arrivals to the United States were Ivan and Vasili Tolmachoff, sons of Alexay Tolmachoff. After the two brothers settled in Los Angeles in 1905, they wrote their father, Alexay, and urged him to come to the United States.
Alexay Sergaich Tolmachoff was a blacksmith who came from the village of Nikitino in Trans-Caucasia, Russia (now Fioletovo, Armenia). He told his sons he would come only on the condition that they settle on a farm.
Ivan and Vasili moved to Arizona in 1911 urged on by a prophesy handed down to them.
"There was a prophesy in Arizona in which it was told to them that they must tell their parents to leave Russia because soon the gates will close."(4)
Alexay Sergaich was moved by the Holy Spirit before leaving Russia and obtained religious manuscripts written by Maxim Gavrilovich Rudomiotkin which were printed in the book, Spirit and Life.(5) The manuscripts were smuggled out in a loaf of hollowed-out bread baked by Alexay's wife, Maria Filipivna. If the authorities had discovered these religious manuscripts, they would have taken them.(6)
Among those leaving with Alexay and his wife were his son Petro, and his son-in-law, Pavel (Paul) Michalovich Popoff. This family and a few others were among the last to leave Russia. World War I halted the migration to the United States. (7)
Alexay, his family, and others arrived in Galveston, Texas in the spring of 1912. Alexay Sergaich and those with him went directly to Arizona. Others in the groups settled in Los Angeles.(8)
Those who came before Alexay and his family stayed in Los Angeles in 1911 and arrived in Glendale on August 30, 1911. By 1920 At that time there were approximately 1,000 Russians in the Glendale area.
The religion that brought them to the United States was as strict as it was colorful. According to The New Schaff-Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, Molokan means "milk drinkers." It further describes the religion as one scorning ceremony, a special priesthood, and the veneration of icons.
Up to 1950 two Spiritual Christian faiths remained in Arizona — Maksimisty (Glendale) and Pryguny (Tolleson). Some wives were from the Molokan and other faiths not practiced in Arizona. In 1928 the final version of the ritual book Kniga solntsa, dukh i zhizn' (Book of the Sun, Spirit and Life) was published in Los Angeles, of which 65% was from the smuggled Rudomiotkin writings revealed in Arizona. By placing this book on all Prygun altar tables, next to the Russian Bible and insisting that all Prygun congregations follow their rituals, Maksimisty converted all Pyguny to Dukh-i-zhizniki.
The Dukh-i-zhizniki Molokans maintain that the only worship of God is in spirit and that the heart of man is the sole true temple of God. In general their doctrines are vague, so that much diversity of opinion prevails among them.(9)
Dave Tolmachoff, in his late 60's, is the minister of the Dukh-i-zhiznik congregation Molokans church in Glendale. The meeting hall church is a white building on Griffin ave at 75th Avenue and Griffin. Located on a dusty lot, with a sprinkling of tamarisk trees, it was at one time the spiritual center for 200 families. That number has dwindled to twenty families members.
When church membership was at its peak during the 1920's, there were Saturday evening services and Sunday worship. During the Sunday service, the women prepared Russian dishes to be eaten by the congregation. Saturday evening services were discontinued some years ago and food is no longer prepared at the church," Tolmachoff said.
Dukh-i-zhizniki Molokans celebrate Biblical holidays such as Passover instead of Easter. Passover or Pascha is the first day on their religious calendar. They Molokans also celebrate Pentecost, Feast of Trumpets, Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles.
Another active member of the congregation church, Jim Treguboff, who lives on 75th Avenue described today's Molokan religion.
"We consider ourselves Protestant, Christians who use the Catholic Bible and practice the Jewish dietary laws as laid down in Leviticus 11. Our ministers are not paid and are considered a community servant," he said. There is always bread and salt on the table before the blessing, and they are the last items to be removed from the table. Our services consist of prayer, the singing of hymns and reading the Bible, and conversations on religious themes. The hymns are similar to Gregorian chants."
While local membership is dwindling, the Dukh-i-zhiznik Molokan religion is expanding in the West. "The future of the Glendale congregation Molokan church is bleak," Treguboff said. "There are two congregations churches in Oregon, where the congregation has tripled, and twelve churches in California. The younger generations are moving out of the urban area and back to the country, which has revitalized the congregation church. The families are running weekend schools to teach the children Russian."
One hundred seventy adult Russians and their families started from Los Angeles on the Santa Fe arriving in Glendale the following day.(10) The group was comprised of farmers carpenters, painters, blacksmiths, and common laborers. According to the August 30, 1911 Arizona Gazette, they were accompanied to their "Arizona utopia" by James S. Griffin, representing the land development company of Greene and Griffin.(11)
Sugar Beet Farmers
Greene and Griffin employed the Russians Molokans to work, as sugar beet farmers for Southwestern Sugar and Land Company, of Glendale, when not working their own farm lands.
Greene and Griffin sold the newcomers tracts of five to ten acres, ranging in price from $100 to $125 per acre, two miles west and one mile south of Glendale. The immigrants paid for the land from their life savings. Settlers also arrived from Alberta, Canada, and they, too, purchased acreage in the foundling colony.(12)
"The settlers lived in tents until they could pool their labor and financial resources for the construction of homes and barns."(13)
Typically, the newcomers ignited resentment among residents already there. An article in the Arizona Gazette, September 1, 1911 accused the Russians Molokans of "unfair competition with native labor".(14)
The writer said, " ... this seems to be only a scare, for it is stated that they will find employment in the beet fields of the Southwestern Sugar and Land company, a branch of local industry in which there has always been a greater demand for labor than the supply."(15)
The writer also compared the Russians to other immigrant settlers:
Russians differ from Chinese and Japanese labor in that they purchase land and settle down and become good citizens, while the Chinese and Japanese engage in agricultural pursuits only sufficiently long to amass a sum sufficient to return them to their native land, where they can live in comfort the balance of their days on an incredibly small sum of money.(16)
The Russians began to build homes and barns and avoided close contact with an aroused community.
The men found work as unskilled laborers arid their wives as domestics or fruit pickers. They compensated for their inferior social position through a strong communal unity, by religious zeal and by many personal and social virtues which are the essential elements of a well-regulated social order.(17)
The Southwestern Sugar and Land Company chose Glendale, Arizona as a site for its $1,000,000 sugar factory, sugar beet fields, and cane fields, because it was unabashedly declared to be "the richest soil in the United States."(18)
Arizona Place Names says the town was established in 1892 by the New England Land Co.
"Settlement was made by some members of the Church of the Brethren from Illinois, who sent B. A. Hatzel out to locate a place for them. He chose this spot, named the town, and bought 360 acres of land."(19)
An article published in April, 1912 in the magazine, Arizona, said that Glendale, situated in the heart of the Salt River Valley, was "declared by government experts to be the richest soil in the United States."(20) All a farmer had to do was combine seed, soil and water in the proper proportions to enjoy a "harvest unsurpassed anywhere else in the world."(21)
The story in the Arizona described Glendale's farm land--
... the section surrounding Glendale owes its fertility to the silt-bearing waters from the north which in centuries past have brought down volcanic ash mixed with silt and deposited it here to a depth of nearly 100 feet. When government experts tested this land some years ago, they found it of such an unusual character, both as to chemical composition and tilth, that they were unable to classify it, or to compare it to any other known soil, so they gave it the name, Glendale Loess.(22)
According to the 1913 City Directory, Glendale is located nine and one-half miles northwest of Phoenix and "is the trade center of about 60,000 acres of the most fertile land of the Salt River Valley." At that time, Glendale was also called the "Garden City" or the "Sugar City."
Glendale's elevation is 1,150 feet, 50 feet higher than Phoenix. In 1913 two lines of the Santa Fe Railway passed through the town, the line to California, and the line from Phoenix to Prescott and Ash Fork. The town was also connected with Phoenix by a street railway line. The town had a telephone exchange and was the center of a network of rural lines. Glendale was connected by a power line with the electric power system of the Roosevelt Irrigation Project and the Reclamation Service located at Glendale a power sub-station to supply power to the town and surrounding country for electric lights and domestic and commercial purposes.(23)
From 1910 to 1913, Glendale showed a remarkable growth and development of any of the towns in the Salt River Valley. By 1913 there were nearly four blocks of brick and concrete business houses, water works, electric light system owned and operated by the town, the million-dollar sugar beet factory, a 20-ton capacity ice factory, a street railway line, three grocery stores, three hardware stores, two dry goods and clothing stores, two meat markets, three lumber yards, three blacksmith shops, one bank, one livery barn, a harness shop, a bakery, a well-equipped newspaper and job office, a jewelry store, a second-hand store, a millinery store, two automobile garages and repair shops, a hotel, two barber shops, three restaurants, a drug store, a news stand, two confectioneries, two theaters, a furniture store, and a number of other business houses. There were two practicing physicians, one lawyer, two real estate agencies, and three fire insurance agencies.(24) There were no saloons. The population of Glendale in 1913 was about 1200 people over the age of 18 none of which had Russian surnames. This indicates that the Russian immigrants lived outside the city limits.
The Southwestern Sugar and Land Company made tests on many farms before locating the plant there. As much as 42 tons of beets to the acre were harvested near, Glendale, with an average of 19.6 tons of 16.6 per cent sugar. The sugar company was feeding 500 head of beef steers on beet pulp and alfalfa, and developing 8,000 acres of land to be sold to sugar beet farmers. In 1912, 5,400 acres of sugar beets were Harvested.(25)
The sugar beet factory employed 300 workers during the busy season and plans were made to increase the number by starting work on a cane-sugar mill to cost $100,000 as soon as sufficient acreage of sugar cane was secured.(26)
The Southwestern Sugar and Land Company imported from Gulf Coast of Mexico four carloads of sugar-cane with which they planted forty acres. The first crop was to be used to plant a still larger acreage. It was hoped that in a short time the sugar-cane industry would become a large source of revenue to the Valley.(27)
When Griffin and Greene recruited Russian Spiritual Christians Molokans and other Russian immigrants to the land of their dreams, no one could foresee anything but success and prosperity. Success for Southwestern Sugar and Land Company [and] the Russian immigrants was not to be, however, because of the low-sugar content of of the beets. The sugar cane froze in the fields during the winter months.
It was difficult to find an exact cause for the low-sugar content of the beets in view of the encouraging reports on the soil in and around Glendale.
A story by Thelma Heatwole, in the August 25, 1957 issue of the Arizona Days and Ways records the view of the editor of the Sugar Tramp, a trade periodical of the early 20-th century. The editor said:
A white fly which lived in this territory and existed on the foliage of the beets, ate the leaves of the beets to such an extent the roots could not produce enough sugar in the beets. Without beets of the proper sugar content, the factory closed.
But this much good came out of the factory and its failure. Some isolated sugar beets were found which were immune to the white fly. The plants were saved and from them were developed sugar beet seed that could be, and is successfully grown even in the presence of the white fly.(28)
Another explanation offered by Jim Treguboff was that the soil didn't have the right balance of chemicals to produce a high enough sugar content for processing.
Sugar beets that are now grown in the Glendale area are used for their seed only. The beets are not processed into sugar. Squirt Company has occupied some smaller facilities on the grounds of the sugar beet factory located at 51st Avenue and Glendale since the early 1940's. They canned single-strength grapefruit juice that was shipped to the armed services overseas. Presently, Squirt Co. uses the facilities for quality control of their fruit juices.
Treesweet leases the main sugar beet factory complex and processes mainly grapefruit and other citrus products.
With the failure of the beet and cane sugar, the Russian farmers turned to cotton which was in great demand during World War I. Cotton became the farmers' biggest, and, in some cases, sole source of income. While the price of cotton remained high, the Russians reaped a financial harvest, but all the boys were in jail.
After the end of the First World War, the bottom dropped out of the cotton market and the colony was in difficulty again. Farmers received small returns for their vegetable crops, living costs were high, and taxes fell behind. Many of Russian farmers left Glendale to join the Dukh-i-zhiznik congregations Molokan colony in California.
Paul Popoff, Alexay Sergaich Tolmachoff's son-in-law, decided to stay along with a few other families including John Treguboff, John Conovaloff, and the Tolmachoff family.
In a June 18, 1980 interview with the Arizona Republic, John Popoff, son of Paul Popoff, remembers his father having to sell his last chickens to buy food for his family.
John Popoff, born here in 1913, told of his family getting together with other Spiritual Christians Molokans to help newly arrived immigrants build houses and get started in the community.
Their methods of communication were inventive "There were times when they didn't know the English language and don't know how to buy things," Popoff said. "There were a lot of ants at the time. So Alexay Tolmachoff brought an ant into the store and pounded it. He wanted poison.
"And there was a soap at the time with a goat on it, so when he went to the store, he said, 'Baaaaa.' And he was handed the soap. He always managed to get what he wanted," he said.
Besides the failure of the sugar beet crops, the Spiritual Christians Molokans were dealt another blow by the Selective Service law during World War I. Leaders of the Molokan sects told Governor Thomas E. Campbell at a hearing June 7, 1917 that their religion forbade their "subscribing their names to anything that pertained to war in any manner whatsoever, even refusing to claim exemption, as the registration provides."(29)
World War I
The penalty for failing to register was impressed on the Spiritual Christians Molokans, but they would not change their minds. A meeting with Assistant U.S. Attorney J. H. Langston in Glendale in a last effort to induce them to register failed. Langston was instructed by Washington to arrest and punish them according to the law.(30)
The 34 35 young men who had refused to register, for the draft were given a hearing before U.S. Attorney Flynn and their bonds were set at $100.
"Bonds were arranged by members of the colony and the young men released pending their trial."(31)
They were sentenced in August to a year in the Yavapai county jail at Presoctt.
In passing sentence, Judge Sawtelle intimated that if the men showed themselves well behaved for a period of two months, he would then consider the question of paroling them. Even if the law allowing the drafting of aliens of friendly powers should pass, the Spiritual Christians Molokans would not be called, for the draft law expressly exempts people of an established religious faith who are avowedly opposed to war by religious principle.(32)
Because the Spiritual Christians Molokans could not be convinced that their signatures on exemption requests would not result in their being drafted into service at a later date, they spent almost a year (10 months of a 1-year sentence) in jail instead of two months.
The young men were accompanied in route to jail by hundreds of Russian settlers. Twenty-eight of the Spiritual Christians Molokans were placed in the county jail on a charge of inciting a riot after they had caused a disturbance near the courthouse.
When the prisoners returned ten months later, families, friends, and relatives of the imprisoned men flocked into town.
"By train time it was estimated that every Russian the valley was at the station."(33)
Local authorities, afraid of another riot upon the return of the young men, warned the crowd that no demonstration would be tolerated.
The presbyter Molokan priest spoke to the men as they returned.
"Greetings were subdued, and the whole group quietly turned to their wagons and carts and in a few minutes were on their way to the Russian settlement, where a celebration I was held."(34)
After being released from prison, practically all of the men registered under the Selective Service draft. At the close of the incident, the Russians kept to themselves and the local paper pleaded for tolerance in an editorial, "Deliver us From Hate."(35)
During World War II most Dukh-i-zhiznik Molokan boys marched off to the armed services without protest, while a minority did alternative service as conscientious objectors in California, or worked in the Federal Prison Camp, north of Tucson.
World War II
Some of the California families began drifting back toward the end of the 1920's and the colony was restored again as an Old World entity. The families were concentrated then as now on either side of 75th Avenue from Glendale Avenue south to Thomas Road and on Indian School Road, and Two of them are in the Tolleson area.
The Depression Years brought more hardship to the community and a few more residents left Glendale. The remaining farmers were known for their hard work and thrift which enabled them to obtain loans for the improvement of their land and the purchasing of modern farm equipment.
Today, this community looks no different than any other rural community. The homes and farms are well-kept. The farmers continue to raise cotton, alfalfa and other grains, and a few of them maintain dairy herds. "Work dedication is their principle!"(36)
Despite their clannishness they must necessarily mingle with the outside world. Their children attend public schools, they buy in the supermarket and the department store, and their carport and garages hold late model cars and pickup trucks.
Most of the settlers have relatives in Russia. Paul Popoff who visited his native country in 1960, said, "conditions are better there since Stalin's death, but you can't beat America."(37)
The barriers of autonomy in a homogeneous society are gradually being broken down. The grandchildren know little if any of their native tongue; attendance at church services has dwindled to about 20, some of the ancient traditions, both moral and spiritual, are not being observed by the younger members.
In 1929 a sociological study was made of the Russian Pryguny Molokans in Los Angeles. The young boys and girls in the 1929 study expressed the same curiosity about their history (38) as those of the 1940's through 1980's in the Glendale area. Group traditions are fast becoming mere folk lore to them.
As the off-spring become more and more integrated into society, attend public schools, acquire American friends, and marry outside their religion, the elders have less and less influence upon them. As economic independence of the younger people grows, the parents give them greater freedom and reluctantly confess admiration of their success in American life. The parents make many adjustments to the demands of their children and unwittingly begin to share in the more conventional American life.(39)
More than three generations have passed since the arrival of the first settlers to the Glendale area. All the patriarchs have died: Paul Popoff, Alexay Tolmachoff, brothers Ivan and Vasili Tolmachoff, Lukian Conovaloff, and John Treguboff. The children of the original settlers are still reluctant to "talk to strangers" about their parents' history and their heritage. Those grand-children living in the Glendale area are more cooperative in answering questions, but they lack a good deal of information.
Jim Treguboff, who speaks fluent Russian, lives between Camelback and Bethany Home Road on 75th Avenue. He is a large, bearded imposing man in his early 50's. His facial features are irregular and reminiscent of his Slavic background.
Treguboff graduated from Glendale Union High School in 1946. His formal education includes a Bachelors Degree from Arizona State University but after one semester of student teaching, he returned to the family dairy. He also played football at ASU (1947-1950).
His parents came to Glendale in 1919 and bought the dairy and 100 acres in 1926. They were not lured by the sugar beets. The dairy occupies 20 acres on 75th Avenue.
Jim was the first born on the dairy. His father John Jacob Treguboff, a widower with one child, came to United States from Kars Oblast, now in Turkey, where he was born. He landed in New York and went directly to San Francisco to join other Russian immigrants. The elder Treguboff met his second wife, an immigrant Russian widow with a child, in the United States. "Counting brothers, sisters, half-brothers, half-sisters, and a step-sister, there were at least nine brothers and six sisters," Jim said.
The family still owns the original land that was purchased in 1926. Jim, an active church member, maintains the dairy and two of his younger brothers continue to farm despite urban pressures.
When asked if the family had any plans to expand their holdings, he replied, "I'm ready to start selling. Civilization has moved right next to our fields."
Treguboff confirmed that much of the original land purchased in the early 1910's -1920's has been sold to land developers. One of Phoenix's largest developers, John F. Long, married Mary Tolmachoff, a descendant of Alexay Tolmachoff. John and Mary Long bought their land from Mary's father for John F. Long's first housing subdivision.
Dan Tolmachoff, a Department of Public Safety officer, is the great-grandson of Alexay Tolmachoff and Mary Long's cousin. In his early 40's, he is married and has two children. He and his family live in a modern home off 51st Avenue and Northern. Dan has no outstanding features that would set him apart from any other native-born American. his wife, Sharon, is not Russian.
Dan said that some of his family war currently farming. Others have sold land or increased the size of their farms since World War II.Those who didn't buy more farm land are leasing it. Independence High School, part of the Glendale Union High School District, was built on land purchased originally by John Tolmachoff.
Three of Dan's relatives were part of the draft protestors, he said.
"My Uncles John and Willie were among those young men. As a matter of [f]act, I had a cousin who went to jail for refusing to serve during World War II. He now works for the government."
When Dan went to work for the Department of Public Safety, some family members were unhappy because he would be carrying a firearm and he married out.
Dan didn't know if his family immigrated to the United States legally or illegally because they entered through El Paso, Texas instead of New York.
Non-Russians find acceptance difficult. "The family has been slow to accept me since I am not Russian," Sharon said. "Some family members still don't know my name or acknowledge the fact they do know it. According to some of the older family members, there are Russians, Blacks, Mexicans, Indians, Orientals, and 'Okies.' I fall into the 'Okie' class."
When Dan entered Glendale Grammar School, he knew little English. He spoke Russian at home and Spanish with his Mexican playmates. He has forgotten most of his Russian.
Despite the dilution of the Russian culture, some traditions persisted. Male and female offspring receive their father's first name as their middle name. The female version of the father's first name is used for girls.
Dan and his family are representative of the assimilation that has taken place among the second generation Russians. These descendents of the first Russian settlers in Glendale represent every walk of life and have become completely integrated. They became class valedictorians, beauty queens, football players, and honor students at Glendale Union High School.
The younger generations involved in the move back to the rural community in the California and Oregon area may bring about a reversal of this trend.
The Spiritual Christians Molokans came to the United States to be free from religious persecution and to avoid fighting which is against their beliefs. They found this freedom in Glendale. With the exception of a few set-backs, they prospered and grew, aided by their dedication to hard work and thrift.
Descendents of the Russian Molokan settlers in Glendale have been assimilated by our society. They look and act no differently than any other "American."
The survival of the Dukh-i-zhiznik Molokan religion and its accompanying traditions lies in the hands of their Russian Molokan descendents and their desire to preserve their heritage.
- Ralph Mahoney, "A Little Bit of Old Russia in Old Arizona," Arizona Highways, June 1965, p. 37.
- Ibid. p. 36-37.
- "Arizona," The Dukh-i-zhiznik Molokan, Feb. 1980, p. 9.
- The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, 1977 ed., s. v. "The Molokani." page 123.
- Mahoney, p. 37.
- "Many Settlers on their Way to Glendale," Arizona Gazette, 30 August 1911, p. 1.
- Mahoney, p. 37.
- "Colonization Just Starting," Arizona Gazette, 1 September 1911, sec. 2, p. 6.
- Pauline V. Young, "The Russian Pryguny Molokans. in Los Angeles in 1929," American Journal of Sociology, 1929, p. 394.
- John Allen Moore, "What About Glendale?" Arizona, The New State Magazine April 1912, p. 6.
- Ralph Mahoney, "Glendale Story," Arizona Days and Ways, 6 November 1955, p. 26.
- Moore, p. 6.
- Phoenix City and Salt River Valley Directory 1913 of Phoenix, Buckeye, Glendale, Mesa and Tempe, 1913, p. 417.
- Thelma Heatwole, "Mostly for the Birds," Arizona Days and Ways, 25 August 1957, p. 12.
- "Russians Chose Jailing in '17 War-Religion Issue," The Glendale News, 8 February 1962, p. 4.
- Mahoney, "A Little Bit of Old Russia in Old Arizona," P. 39.
- Young, p. 396.
- Ibid., p. 397.
- "Arizona." The Dukh-i-zhiznik Molokan. February 1980, p. 8-11.
- "Colonization Just Starting." Arizona Gazette. 1 September 1911, p. 6.
- Heatwole, Thelma. "Mostly for the Birds." Arizona Days and Ways. 25 August 1957, Phoenix, Arizona, p. 12.
- Jackson, Samuel, M., editor. s.v. "The Molokani." The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge. Michigan: Baker Book House, 1977, p. 123-124.
- Mahoney, Ralph. "Glendale Story." Arizona Days and Ways. 6 November 1955, Phoenix, Arizona, p. 26-39.
- Mahoney, Ralph. "A Little Bit of Old Russia in Old Arizona." Arizona Highways. Vol. XLI, No. 6. June 1965, Phoenix, Arizona, p. 37-39.
- "Many Settlers on their Way to Glendale." Arizona Gazette. 30 August 1911, sec. 2, p. 6.
- Moore, John Allen. "What About Glendale?" Arizona-The New State Magazine. Vol. II, No. 6. April 1912, Phoenix, Arizona, p. 6.
- Phoenix City and Salt River Valley Directory 1913 of Phoenix, Buckeye, Glendale, Mesa & Tempe. Arizona Directory Co., 424 S. Broadway, Los Angeles, California, 1912, p. 417-418.
- "Russians Chose Jailing in '17 War-Religion Issue." The Glendale News. 8 February 1962, p. 4.
- Young, Pauline V. "The Russian Pryguny Molokans in Los Angeles in 1929." American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 35 (1929), p.,393-402.
- Tolmachoff, Dan, Department of Public Safety officer, Glendale, Arizona. Interview, March 21, 1981.
- Tolmachoff, Dave, Molokan Priest presbyter (lay minister, presiding elder), Glendale, Arizona. Interview, March 11, 1981.
- Treguboff, Jim, Dairy Farmer, Glendale, Arizona. Interview, March 21, 1981.
Spiritual Christians in Arizona
Molokane, Pryguny and Dukh-i-zhizniki Around the World